This map is an interesting early attempt to embed complex statistical information into map form. It shows us the countries of origin of new immigrants to each state and the occupations of the adult male immigrants (women and children were categorized as “no occupation”). Michigan saw the influx of 20,920 immigrants that year with the largest groups coming from Finland, Scandinavian countries, and Poland.
The report’s author, Sargent, was no friend to immigration and in his report expressed dismay at the quantity of immigrants, their relative poverty, and their ethnic make-up which had swung in recent years to eastern and southern European groups.
This map will be on display in the MSU Map Library beginning the week of February 10, 2014.
Race and Occupation of immigrants by destination. Also the yearly increase and decrease of each state’s proportion and the number. Made in 1903 to accompany the Annual Report of the Commission-General of Immigration for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1903 by Frank P. Sargent, Commissioner-General of Immigration and published in Washington in 1903 by the Government Printing Office.
Long before the concept of ‘invasive species’ was established, naturalists such as Jacques Milbert combed the exotic American landscape for novel plants to share with the Old Country. Milbert's skill as a landscape artist is apparent in his 2-volume travel journal and ‘atlas’ of sketches which was published after his return. This journal is much cherished in the United States for providing early views of the country and descriptions of lifestyle and customs.
The map on display was the only one to appear in this work. The geography is nearly a spot-on copy of that in John Melish’s 1813 ‘Map of the Seat of War in North America.’ Even the scroll is identical, except that Melish filled his with a population list rather than the title information.
The map highlights the water routes from New York City to Michigan Territory - including an inset of the Hudson River, the Erie Canal, the St. Lawrence Seaway, and both the Grand River and Lake Simcoe canoe shortcuts through Ontario. Milbert noted on the map the places he traveled, which were all well East of Michigan Territory.
This map will be on exhibit in the MSU Map Library beginning the week of December 30, 2013. It was a generous gift of Ron Dietz.
“Boston from the State House Belvedere a Century Ago.” An article written by Constance D. Sherman and published in December 1959 in the journal The New England Quarterly, volume 32 number 4, on pages 521-530.
“Jacques Gerard Milbert.” An entry in the book Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, volume 4, published 1887 through 1889 in New York by D. Appleton and Company.
This map is clearly copied directly from a larger map made in 1698 by Father Louis Hennepin. Le Beau could have chosen any number of newer and more accurate maps to illustrate his story, but he or his publisher chose this 40-year old map.
LeBeau was a bored clerk working in an office in New France. He was no mapmaker and no explorer, but rather an exile banished from France for being a “libertine.” LeBeau escaped his fate and hitched a ride back to Amsterdam where he drew on his 18-month experience and wrote of his so-called adventures.
The map is dedicated to the even more controversial Ernst Johann von Biron, Count of Courland and long-time power behind the Russian throne.
The Le Beau map is displayed in the Map Library starting the week of September 30, 2013, alongside a reproduction of the 1698 Hennepin map.
Amerique septentrionalis: carte d'un tres grand pays entre le Nouveau Mexique et la Mer Glaciale. Made by Louis Hennepin, Abraham van Someren and Jan Van Vianen. Appeared in the book, Nouvelle Découverte d'un Trés Grand Pays Situé Dans l'Amérique, Entre le Nouveau Mexique, et la Mer Glaciale. Published in Amsterdam by A. v. Someren in 1698. Reproduced in The Mapping of the Great Lakes in the Seventeenth Century: Twenty-Two Maps from the George S. & Nancy B. Parker Collection. Published in Providence, Rhode Island by the John Carter Brown Library in 1989.
"Biron, Ernst Johann." Written by John T. Alexander. In Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol. 1. Pubished in New York by Macmillan Reference USA in 2004.
“LeBeau, Claude,” written by Étienne Taillemite and published in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 2. Published by the University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–.
New England in Early Printed Maps 1513-1800: An Annotated Carto-Bibliography. Written by Barbara B. McCorkle. Published in Providence, RI by The John Carter Brown Library in 2001.
This is the first detailed map of part of Michigan Territory. By 1825 federal land surveyors had surveyed much of southeast Michigan. Two map makers woke up to the fact that the Erie Canal was going to bring many settlers to Michigan and these settlers would need information about the surveyed parts of the Territory. Competing maps were made by Orange Risdon and John Farmer, of which Risdon’s is the older and was drawn at a much larger scale.
The population of the entire Michigan Territory at the time was somewhere between 17,000 and 40,000 people, of which about 7,900 were Native Americans and the balance European-descended settlers.
In the map detail of Detroit we can see the clash of land division systems: Old French long lots meet up with Judge Woodward’s Ten Thousand Acre Tract and are filled in all around with the U.S. Public Land Survey System. To the southeast we can see part of Ontario, Canada, where Windsor was still called “Sandwich.” Significant sites of the War of 1812 are noted on the Windsor-Essex Peninsula.
The map also shows numerous Native American reservations. The map detail below showing the Saginaw area shows three 640 acre (1-square mile) reservations granted to three people in the U.S. treaty with the Chippewa Nation in 1819.
This map is not on public display (as it doesn't fit inside the exhibit case) but is available for viewing upon request in the MSU Map Library.
1838 Gazetteer of the State of Michigan in Three Parts. (1838). Written by John T. Blois. Published in Detroit by Sydney L Rood & Co. Reprinted in Knightstown, Indiana by The Bookmark in 1979.
Articles of a Treaty Made and Concluded at Saginaw, in the Territory of Michigan, Between the United States of America, by the Commissioner, Lewis Cass, and the Chippewa Nation of Indians. Sept. 24, 1819, Proclamation, March 25, 1820. 7 Stat. 203.
Compendium of History and Biography of the City of Detroit and Wayne County, Michigan. (1909). Written by Clarence M. Burton. Published in Chicago by H. Taylor & Co.
Bibliography of the printed maps of Michigan, 1804-1880, with a series of over one hundred reproductions of maps constituting an historical atlas of the Great lakes and Michigan. (1931). Written by Louis Charles Karpinski and William Lee Jenks. Published in Lansing, Michigan by the Michigan Historical Commission.
This map wonderfully illustrates a point in time when the states made from the Northwest Territory were only partly formed and partially surveyed and subdivided. One can see how the most detailed survey work commenced along the Ohio, Mississippi and Detroit Rivers and spread up and out to the hinterlands.
Here we see Michigan beginning to take a more modern shape. As the federal surveyors spread out over the state, they measured on the ground what had before only been estimated. Ten counties so far had been marked out, surveyed, and divided into survey townships. Such division prepared the land for claiming, buying and selling.
Michigan was still only a territory at this point and not a state. The states of Indiana, Illinois and Ohio were better known and better settled. Much of these lands were not available for European-American settlement, being in the hands of Native American groups including Sauks, Foxes, Pottowatomies, Kickapoos, Ottawas and Miamis.
This map was purchased with funds from the Tamara Brunnschweiler Geography Library Endowment Fund.
Karpinski, Louis Charles, and William Lee Jenks. 1931. Bibliography of the printed maps of Michigan, 1804-1880, with a series of over one hundred reproductions of maps constituting an historical atlas of the Great lakes and Michigan. Lansing, Mich: Michigan historical commission.
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