This map is clearly copied directly from a larger map made in 1698 by Father Louis Hennepin. Le Beau could have chosen any number of newer and more accurate maps to illustrate his story, but he or his publisher chose this 40-year old map.
LeBeau was a bored clerk working in an office in New France. He was no mapmaker and no explorer, but rather an exile banished from France for being a “libertine.” LeBeau escaped his fate and hitched a ride back to Amsterdam where he drew on his 18-month experience and wrote of his so-called adventures.
The map is dedicated to the even more controversial Ernst Johann von Biron, Count of Courland and long-time power behind the Russian throne.
The Le Beau map is displayed in the Map Library starting the week of September 30, 2013, alongside a reproduction of the 1698 Hennepin map.
Amerique septentrionalis: carte d'un tres grand pays entre le Nouveau Mexique et la Mer Glaciale. Made by Louis Hennepin, Abraham van Someren and Jan Van Vianen. Appeared in the book, Nouvelle Découverte d'un Trés Grand Pays Situé Dans l'Amérique, Entre le Nouveau Mexique, et la Mer Glaciale. Published in Amsterdam by A. v. Someren in 1698. Reproduced in The Mapping of the Great Lakes in the Seventeenth Century: Twenty-Two Maps from the George S. & Nancy B. Parker Collection. Published in Providence, Rhode Island by the John Carter Brown Library in 1989.
"Biron, Ernst Johann." Written by John T. Alexander. In Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol. 1. Pubished in New York by Macmillan Reference USA in 2004.
“LeBeau, Claude,” written by Étienne Taillemite and published in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 2. Published by the University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–.
New England in Early Printed Maps 1513-1800: An Annotated Carto-Bibliography. Written by Barbara B. McCorkle. Published in Providence, RI by The John Carter Brown Library in 2001.
This is the first detailed map of part of Michigan Territory. By 1825 federal land surveyors had surveyed much of southeast Michigan. Two map makers woke up to the fact that the Erie Canal was going to bring many settlers to Michigan and these settlers would need information about the surveyed parts of the Territory. Competing maps were made by Orange Risdon and John Farmer, of which Risdon’s is the older and was drawn at a much larger scale.
The population of the entire Michigan Territory at the time was somewhere between 17,000 and 40,000 people, of which about 7,900 were Native Americans and the balance European-descended settlers.
In the map detail of Detroit we can see the clash of land division systems: Old French long lots meet up with Judge Woodward’s Ten Thousand Acre Tract and are filled in all around with the U.S. Public Land Survey System. To the southeast we can see part of Ontario, Canada, where Windsor was still called “Sandwich.” Significant sites of the War of 1812 are noted on the Windsor-Essex Peninsula.
The map also shows numerous Native American reservations. The map detail below showing the Saginaw area shows three 640 acre (1-square mile) reservations granted to three people in the U.S. treaty with the Chippewa Nation in 1819.
This map is not on public display (as it doesn't fit inside the exhibit case) but is available for viewing upon request in the MSU Map Library.
1838 Gazetteer of the State of Michigan in Three Parts. (1838). Written by John T. Blois. Published in Detroit by Sydney L Rood & Co. Reprinted in Knightstown, Indiana by The Bookmark in 1979.
Articles of a Treaty Made and Concluded at Saginaw, in the Territory of Michigan, Between the United States of America, by the Commissioner, Lewis Cass, and the Chippewa Nation of Indians. Sept. 24, 1819, Proclamation, March 25, 1820. 7 Stat. 203.
Compendium of History and Biography of the City of Detroit and Wayne County, Michigan. (1909). Written by Clarence M. Burton. Published in Chicago by H. Taylor & Co.
Bibliography of the printed maps of Michigan, 1804-1880, with a series of over one hundred reproductions of maps constituting an historical atlas of the Great lakes and Michigan. (1931). Written by Louis Charles Karpinski and William Lee Jenks. Published in Lansing, Michigan by the Michigan Historical Commission.
This map wonderfully illustrates a point in time when the states made from the Northwest Territory were only partly formed and partially surveyed and subdivided. One can see how the most detailed survey work commenced along the Ohio, Mississippi and Detroit Rivers and spread up and out to the hinterlands.
Here we see Michigan beginning to take a more modern shape. As the federal surveyors spread out over the state, they measured on the ground what had before only been estimated. Ten counties so far had been marked out, surveyed, and divided into survey townships. Such division prepared the land for claiming, buying and selling.
Michigan was still only a territory at this point and not a state. The states of Indiana, Illinois and Ohio were better known and better settled. Much of these lands were not available for European-American settlement, being in the hands of Native American groups including Sauks, Foxes, Pottowatomies, Kickapoos, Ottawas and Miamis.
This map was purchased with funds from the Tamara Brunnschweiler Geography Library Endowment Fund.
Karpinski, Louis Charles, and William Lee Jenks. 1931. Bibliography of the printed maps of Michigan, 1804-1880, with a series of over one hundred reproductions of maps constituting an historical atlas of the Great lakes and Michigan. Lansing, Mich: Michigan historical commission.
Once upon a time there was a man named John Mitchell who in 1755 made a famous map of North America. Though not a map-maker by profession, he was walking with some serious street cred having lived in Virginia for several years. His giant map was so remarkable (and decidedly pro-British) that for a time mapmakers across Europe became Mitchell cover bands, cranking out their own interpretations of the map.
D’Anville was a leading mapmaker in France, and this is the French version of the Mitchell map (published astonishingly quickly, only 9 months after Mitchell’s). D’Anville had an excellent reputation for his careful attention to details and geographic accuracy.
The second map is a Santini copy of the d’Anville map. Even after twenty years, the map was still the “it map” of North America (La version française).
Detail from 1755 map
Detail from 1775 map
These maps will be on display in the MSU Map Library the week of July 29, 2013. They were generous gifts of Ron Dietz.
J.-B. d’Anville as Armchair Mapmaker: The Impact of Production Contexts on His Work. An article published in the journal Imago Mundi, volume 63 part 1 on pages 88-105.
The Southeast in Early Maps. Written by William Patterson Cumming. Published in Chapel Hill, NC by University of North Carolina Press in 1998.
In 1865, Michigan’s mineral resources were just beginning to make a mark on the world. The western movement of people and wartime reliance on northern transportation routes drew attention to Michigan’s newly convenient resources including iron ore, copper, and salt.
The map at first glance is typical of its day, highlighting land divisions and railroad routes. But drawn over it in light lines are the boundaries of major geologic features of Michigan, which had recently been established by Winchell himself. The prominence of non-geologic features on the map, and the fact that it folded with a cover to fit into one’s pocket, suggests that it was intended for lay use rather than for other geologists.
Winchell could see that Michigan had great potential for mineral resource production. A key factor for their extraction was the opening of the locks at Sault Ste. Marie 10 years before this map was printed, in combination with the new rail lines to the iron and copper resources.
Detail from map. The "18" refers to the area designated as 'Granitic Rocks'.
This map will be on display in the MSU Map Library the week of July 22, 2013.
Guns, Grain and Iron Ore: Michigan’s Economy During the Civil War. Written by Albert A. Blum and published in the May/June issue of Michigan History on pages 13-20.
The American Steel Industry, 1850-1970: A Geographical Interpretation. Written by Kenneth Warren. Published in Oxford, Great Britain by Clarendon Press in 1973.
"Winchell, Alexander," an entry in Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 14, pages 439-440. Published in Detroit by Charles Scribner's Sons in 2008. Accessed via Gale Virtual Reference Library.
|<< <||> >>|