Part of the black-ink plate to the 1912 Lansing topographic map.
From the 1880s to the 1950s, the U.S. Geological Survey used engraved copper plates in the process of printing topographic and geographic quadrangle maps. Copper alloy engraving plates were inscribed with a mirror image of the points, contour lines, symbols, and text that constitute a topographic map. Each plate was inscribed with details for a single color of ink. Every sheet of paper had to be impressed multiple times to make a complete color map. In order to make large numbers of prints, USGS transferred the image from the engraved plate to a special lithographic stone. Otherwise, the accuracy of the engraving would have been lost due to the repeated pressure required to transfer the image directly from the plate to paper. This production process not only preserved the life of each plate, but also allowed the Survey to mix and interchange other layers when needed such as surface geology, bedrock, economic geology, soils, and forestry.
Beginning February 1, 2016, the MSU Map Library is displaying all 3 copper plates used in the printing of the 1912 USGS topographic map of the Lansing area.
The blue plate is etched with water features (lakes, streams, and marshes). The most prominent feature on this plate is the Grand River running north to south. Unusually straight water lines typically indicate drains constructed by the county drain commissions.
The black plate is etched with cultural features such as roads, railroads, boundaries, and all of the text. The most prominent feature on this map is the City of Lansing.
The brown plate is etched with contour lines which communicate elevation and the shape of the land. Brown numbers are spot elevations in feet above sea level. The abnormally straight lines represent areas that were contoured, usually to make flat grades for highways and railroads.
The plate and map display an area that is ¼ of a degree of latitude by ¼ of a degree of longitude. The City of Lansing is located at the top, right, of the printed map, Michigan Agricultural College is just off the east edge of this map. Out in the countryside you will notice all the one-room schoolhouses situated every couple of miles. The historical topographic maps of the United States may be seen online at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/maps/Topoview/
East Lansing and MSC, 1926
This map of East Lansing and the Michigan State College campus shows every land parcel and every campus building. It also includes the city’s sanitation and sewage treatment infrastructure, which mainly involved piping sewage to the Red Cedar River (a practice long since discontinued).
The City of East Lansing passed its first zoning ordinance effective August 13, 1926 in the form of a 12-page booklet which is attached to the map. The ordinance created five use districts in the city (excepting the college lands) which carefully separated fraternity and sorority housing and other group lodgings from single-family homes. Commercial activities were limited to certain places and some were disallowed altogether except by appeal such as slaughterhouses, fat rendering, and sauer kraut manufacture.
Sewer lines from IM Circle run to the Red Cedar River.
Cedar Village was zoned for fraternity and sorority houses (left) and multiple dwelling units (right).
These images are from the map: City of East Lansing Use Districts. Drawn by Hubbell Hart Gering & Roth and published by the City of East Lansing in 1926.
This map will be on exhibit in the MSU Map Library starting February 3, 2016. The full map may be seen online, with permission from the City of East Lansing: http://www.lib.msu.edu/branches/map/JPEGS/843-d-a-1926-300
This map was a gift of Ronald Dietz
We will be offering many fun and useful workshops this semester!
Print your Neighborhood: 3D Printing From A Topographic Map: No 3D printing experience necessary. Use simple applications to prepare a file to 3D print a small area relief map of your favorite place or research area. Please bring a laptop with Autodesk 123D loaded (it can be downloaded for free here) Tuesday January 26th 3-4 PM (in the Makerspace Series) No registration needed - just show up to the Makerspace on the second floor of the library
QGIS Workshop 1: Choropleth Mapping will demonstrate how to make a choropleth map and place graduated symbols on it, load shapefiles and .csv table files into QGIS, join tables to a shapefile and edit shapefile features. Monday February 1st 3-4 PM in the Beaumont Room of the Main Library. Register here
QGIS Workshop 2: Georeferencing expands skills by working with raster images and data. Participants will learn how to georeference a digitized map (such as a historic map or aerial photo) and create vector data from it for basic analysis. Monday February 8th 3-4 PM 3-4 PM in the Beaumont Room of the Main Library. Register here
Finding Geospatial Data This workshop will describe places and strategies for finding geospatial data of various types, with an emphasis on free, public resources as well as library resources. There will be time at the end to answer questions, conduct individual searches and brainstorm about individual project needs. Monday March 21st 3-4:30 PM in the Main Library 3 West No registration needed.
Create a 3D Historical Map Flythrough Using ArcScene Learn to use the ArcGIS 3D Analyst tool ArcScene to create a 3D digital video flythrough of a research area or other place using a DEM and overlays (such as data layers or historic maps). Experience using ArcGIS is helpful as is bringing a laptop with ArcGIS if you have it. Wednesday March 30th 2-4 PM (Visualization Series) in the Main Library Basement Instruction Room Register here.
The History of Cartography v.5 (Cartography in the 19th Century) is seeking contributors to write entries on the following topics.
If you are interested in writing one (or more) of these, please contact
Volume 5, History of Cartography
Cluster Entry Term Words Contracted
1.1.1 Property Mapping Property Mapping in the Caribbean 2000
1.1.1 Property Mapping Property Mapping in Portugal 2000
1.1.1 Property Mapping Property Mapping in Portuguese America 2000
1.1.1 Property Mapping Property Mapping in Spanish America 4000
1.1.1 Property Mapping Property Mapping in South Asia 4000
1.1.2 Boundary Surveying Boundary Surveying in the Caribbean 2000
1.1.2 Boundary Surveying Boundary Surveying in the British Isles 2000
1.1.3 Topographical Mapping Topographical Mapping in South Asia 4000
1.1.4 Urban Mapping Urban Mapping in the Nineteenth Century 6000
1.1.4 Urban Mapping Urban Mapping in Canada 2000
1.1.4 Urban Mapping Urban Mapping in the Caribbean 4000
1.1.4 Urban Mapping Urban Mapping in South Asia 2000
1.2.1 Geographical Mapping Exploration and Mapping 6000
1.2.3 Thematic Mapping Railway Mapping in Canada 2000
1.2.3 Thematic Mapping Railway Mapping in the Netherlands 2000
1.2.3 Thematic Mapping Railway Mapping in South Asia 2000
1.2.3 Thematic Mapping Utilities Maps 4000
1.2.4 Marine Charting Marine Charting by Japan 1200
2.2.1 Geodetic Surveying Geodetic Surveying in Canada 1200
2.2.1 Geodetic Surveying Geodetic Surveying in Central and Eastern Europe 2000
2.2.1 Geodetic Surveying Geodetic Surveying in the United States 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in the Nineteenth Century 6000
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in Canada 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in the Caribbean 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in the British Isles 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in Nordic Countries 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in South Asia 1200
3.1.1 Map Trade Map Trade in Southeast Asia 1200
3.2.1 Administrative Cartography Administrative Cartography in Canada 2000
3.2.1 Administrative Cartography Administrative Cartography in the Caribbean 2000
3.2.1 Administrative Cartography Administrative Cartography in Nordic Countries 2000
3.2.2 Military Mapping Military Mapping by Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania 2000
3.2.2 Military Mapping Military Mapping by South Asia 2000
4.2.0 Institutions and Periodicals Lysons Magna Britannia 800
4.2.0 Institutions and Periodicals Oficina Técnica Topografica 800
4.2.0 Institutions and Periodicals Westermann Verlag 1200
National Library of Australia
In his speech to the US Congress on September 24, Pope Francis stated that “Our world is facing a refugee crisis of a magnitude not seen since the Second World War.” This common refrain can be heard throughout the current dialogue on the refugee and migrant situation in Europe and elsewhere but, what does it really mean?
Following the Potsdam Agreement, there were approximately 23 million people displaced either by the war’s effect or through the forced expulsion of Germans from Eastern Europe. These population movements are reflected in our map from 1952, showing an astounding 13.5 million refugees in Eastern and Western Germany and another 1.5 million refugees throughout Western Europe seven years after WWII.
Map 1: Map projecting the spreading of refugees in western Europe. Beijer, G. published by:M. Nijhoff, The Hague. 1952.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 saw another migration crisis in Western Europe. This event was of a smaller scale than after WWII or the present but was not less contentious. At that time, EU member states tightened their borders and instituted laws refusing entry to refugees entering the EU through a third 'politically safe' country. This policy, concerned with deterring economic migrants from former Soviet Republics, has stirred intense debate and added to the misery of refugees currently traveling through Eastern Europe to seek asylum in Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere.
Map 2: Coping with the rising tide of European immigration. Washington, D.C., USA. Central Intelligence Agency. 1993.
Currently, UNHCR estimates that over 800,000 people have fled to Europe by sea, with the majority fleeing the on-going conflict in Syria. However, these numbers represent only a fraction of the 11.7 million displaced Syrians and the greater than 50 million displaced persons around the globe. It is because of these staggering figures that the numerous comparisons to the post-WWII situation are common and warranted.
These maps are on display in the MSU Map Library starting November 16, 2015.
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